Surely God is my salvation; I will trust and not be afraid. - Isaiah 12:2

Milestones in Cloning, IVF, and Surrogate Parenting

Cassandra Price, CLR Program Assistant
Clearly Caring Magazine, May/June 2007, Vol. 27, No. 3

1891

  • First known case of embryo transplantation using two species of rabbits.

1938

  • First cloning technique proposed, proven years later.

1944

  • First successful IVF of human eggs.

1959

  • First unequivocal case of a live birth following egg fertilization in the lab, true IVF and subsequent embryo transfer, to the uterus.

1964

  • First two sperm banks open in Iowa City, U.S. and Tokyo, Japan.

1972

  • AMA urges moratorium on IVF research involving humans.

1976

  • Human embryo at the late morulae /early blastocyst stage transferred into the uterus, resulting in a clinical pregnancy. The tubal ectopic pregnancy must be removed.
  • First formal agreement made between a couple and a surrogate mother in the U.S.

1978

  • First "test-tube baby" Louise Joy Brown born in England.
  • Del-Zio's wins its case against Vande Wiele after the termination of their baby following IVF.

1980

  • Australia's first IVF baby, Candice Elizabeth Reed, born.
  • First U.S. IVF clinic opens in Virginia.

1981

  • First report of use of ultrasound for percutaneous oocyte retrieval instead of laparoscopy.
  • First U.S. IVF baby, Elizabeth Jordan Carr, is born. Marking the return of injectable fertility drug to help stimulate an IVF pregnancy.
  • Samantha Steel, a test tube baby born to American parents, is born in England.

1983

  • First egg donation pregnancy.

1984

  • First donor embryo baby born in Melbourne.
  • First report using transvaginal ultrasound guidance for egg retrieval.
  • Lamb is cloned from a developing sheep embryo cell. Experiment is repeated by other scientists who clone a variety of animals.

1986

  • Surrogacy comes to national attention with the "Baby M" case.

1987

  • First report of use of ultrasound for embryo transfer.

1989

  • American Bar Association drafts two alternative model laws involving surrogate motherhood.

1990

  • First pregnancies reported after preimplantation genetic diagnosis. Also first reported case of sex selection (gender selection) in IVF.

1991

  • First report using assisted hatching of zona pellucida to improve pregnancy rates.

1992

  • First report of pregnancies and deliveries using intracytoplasmic sperm injection.

1993

  • Lab experiments of IVF involving human eggs leads to the "cloning" of human embryos. Process divides such fertilized eggs at very early stage of development but produces a twin rather than a clone.
  • California Supreme Court issues ruling declaring surrogacy contracts legal in California in Johnson v. Calvert.

1996

  • World's first sheep cloned from adult cells, named Dolly.

1998

  • Human embryonic stem cells isolated and cultured by researchers at the University of Wisconsin.

2001

  • Scientists announce the cloning of human embryos for first time, but embryos die after a few cell divisions.
  • President Bush limits federally-funded research on human embryonic stem cells to lines, or colonies, of cells that have already been created.

2002

  • California becomes first state to approve law legalizing the cloning of embryos to produce stem cells for scientific and medical purposes.

2003

  • Dolly is euthanized at age 6 after being diagnosed with lung disease.

2004

  • South Korean Researcher Hwang Woo-suk claims to be first to clone a human embryo and generate cell lines from them.

2005

  • 67-year-old woman delivers twins using IVF and egg donation.
  • Study suggests IVF babies at higher risk for birth defects.
  • South Korean scientists clone a dog, named Snuppy.
  • South Korean researchers clone two female wolves.
  • South Korean University investigators announce that Hwang's findings on human embryos and stem cells are fraudulent.

2006

  • Hwang's trial for fraud, embezzlement and bioethics breaches begins in Seoul District Court.

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