Milestones in Cloning, IVF, and Surrogate ParentingCassandra Price, CLR Program Assistant
Clearly Caring Magazine, May/June 2007, Vol. 27, No. 3
- First known case of embryo transplantation using two species of rabbits.
- First cloning technique proposed, proven years later.
- First successful IVF of human eggs.
- First unequivocal case of a live birth following egg fertilization in the lab, true IVF and subsequent embryo transfer, to the uterus.
- First two sperm banks open in Iowa City, U.S. and Tokyo, Japan.
- AMA urges moratorium on IVF research involving humans.
- Human embryo at the late morulae /early blastocyst stage transferred into the uterus, resulting in a clinical pregnancy. The tubal ectopic pregnancy must be removed.
- First formal agreement made between a couple and a surrogate mother in the U.S.
- First "test-tube baby" Louise Joy Brown born in England.
- Del-Zio's wins its case against Vande Wiele after the termination of their baby following IVF.
- Australia's first IVF baby, Candice Elizabeth Reed, born.
- First U.S. IVF clinic opens in Virginia.
- First report of use of ultrasound for percutaneous oocyte retrieval instead of laparoscopy.
- First U.S. IVF baby, Elizabeth Jordan Carr, is born. Marking the return of injectable fertility drug to help stimulate an IVF pregnancy.
- Samantha Steel, a test tube baby born to American parents, is born in England.
- First egg donation pregnancy.
- First donor embryo baby born in Melbourne.
- First report using transvaginal ultrasound guidance for egg retrieval.
- Lamb is cloned from a developing sheep embryo cell. Experiment is repeated by other scientists who clone a variety of animals.
- Surrogacy comes to national attention with the "Baby M" case.
- First report of use of ultrasound for embryo transfer.
- American Bar Association drafts two alternative model laws involving surrogate motherhood.
- First pregnancies reported after preimplantation genetic diagnosis. Also first reported case of sex selection (gender selection) in IVF.
- First report using assisted hatching of zona pellucida to improve pregnancy rates.
- First report of pregnancies and deliveries using intracytoplasmic sperm injection.
- Lab experiments of IVF involving human eggs leads to the "cloning" of human embryos. Process divides such fertilized eggs at very early stage of development but produces a twin rather than a clone.
- California Supreme Court issues ruling declaring surrogacy contracts legal in California in Johnson v. Calvert.
- World's first sheep cloned from adult cells, named Dolly.
- Human embryonic stem cells isolated and cultured by researchers at the University of Wisconsin.
- Scientists announce the cloning of human embryos for first time, but embryos die after a few cell divisions.
- President Bush limits federally-funded research on human embryonic stem cells to lines, or colonies, of cells that have already been created.
- California becomes first state to approve law legalizing the cloning of embryos to produce stem cells for scientific and medical purposes.
- Dolly is euthanized at age 6 after being diagnosed with lung disease.
- South Korean Researcher Hwang Woo-suk claims to be first to clone a human embryo and generate cell lines from them.
- 67-year-old woman delivers twins using IVF and egg donation.
- Study suggests IVF babies at higher risk for birth defects.
- South Korean scientists clone a dog, named Snuppy.
- South Korean researchers clone two female wolves.
- South Korean University investigators announce that Hwang's findings on human embryos and stem cells are fraudulent.
- Hwang's trial for fraud, embezzlement and bioethics breaches begins in Seoul District Court.
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